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Brain Vascular Malformation

Arteriovenous malformation

Result from abnormal connections between arteries and veins. Patients present with hemorrhage in 50% of the cases. Some may present with seizures as well. Fortunately, the annual of hemorrhage for superficial AVMs is less than 1%, but higher for deeper drainage lesions. The treatment is surgery for resection, embolization or radiation therapy.

Cavernous malformation

These are clusters of vessels which can present with seizures, weakness and hemorrhage. Symptomatic patients can require surgical resection for readily accessible lesions. Difficult to access lesions rarely are managed with radiosurgery.

Dural arteriovenous fistulas

These are rare vascular abnormalities which typically result when new arteries grown into venous lumen without the required capillaries and creates an abnormal ‘shunt’. The symptomatic cases are managed with surgery or endovascular embolization.

Capillary telangectasias

These are rare blood vessel lesions which are usually located in the lower part of the brain called the brain stem. The majority of these are not managed surgically.

Venous angiomas

Result from a large collection of veins and typically do not produce symptoms. These are usually not managed surgically. On rare occasions, these may require surgery for hemorrhage or if patients are symptomatic